Rome’s Three Heirs: Byzantine, Muslim, and Frankish Kingdoms

Assignment – Read the Textbook Chapter 8 pp. 204-230, as well as the Pirenne Thesis and answer the following question in 2-3 paragraphs

1. Henri Pirenne argued that without Islam, Charlemagne would have never been conceivable, and there are many instances that point to the accuracy of this theory. On the other hand, one can see significant development during the Carolingian Era that seems to underscore the notion that perhaps Charlemagne and the Franks would have achieved fame and success despite the mighty hand of Islam. Which side of the argument do you find appealing and why? Be sure to ground your answer in historical data.

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