1) Bill Simmons is the manager of a small restaurant and must decide how much money he owes his suppliers. The best way for Bill to approach this as a critical thinker is to
A. collect and analyze the evidence
B. identify opportunities and obstacles
C. understand different perspectives on the issue
D. weigh the consequences of this decision
2) Critical thinking is very important in making decisions that impact an organization’s growth and survival. Which of the following traits of a critical thinker is essential in this process?
A. Intellectual integrity
B. Intellectual empathy
C. Intellectual perseverance
D. Intellectual courage
3) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a problem a helpful step is to
A. Determine root causes
B. Measure the decision
C. Frame alternatives
D. Evaluate effects of the problem
4) In the stages of development of critical thinking, which of the following types of thinking entails exploring the foundation of our thinking and discover how we have come to think and believe we do?
A. Beginning thinker
B. Practical thinker
C. Advanced thinker
D. Master thinker
5) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to:
A. increase the use of the logical thinking style
B. increase the homogeneity of his or her team
C. assign the role of devil’s advocate for meetings
D. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities
6) The outcome of the process of framing the problem includes:
A. a list of potential alternative courses of action
B. a list of criteria, goals, and objectives for a decision
C. a timeline for decision implementation
D. an assessment of resources needed to execute a decision
7) A form of critical thinking is fair-minded, persuasive thinking. When engaging in problem formulation and identification with a group, the fair minded persuader would:
A. communicate only that information which supports the desired decision
B. avoid all affective appeals
C. emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason
D. acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position creates for the audience
8) Of the decision styles listed below, which one should be used for a non-urgent, yet critical and unusual problem affecting multiple stakeholders?
D. Programmed decision making
9) Urgent crisis conditions might call for a decision making style that is
10) A manager may properly choose to ignore a problem
A. when the costs of doing nothing are less than the cost of addressing the problem
B. because of a bias against change
C. when the problem is surfaced through a positive trigger point
D. when a Pareto chart has properly clarified the causes of a problem
11) ____________ is based on the concept that 80% of a project’s goal can be achieved by doing 20% of the work or that 80% of the problems are due to 20% of causes.
A. Plus/Minus Implications (PMI)
B. Force Field Analysis
C. Criteria Matrix
D. Pareto Analysis
12) For urgent decisions, which approach may be the most efficient and effective use of the manager’s time when there are other critical competing priorities?
D. Brainstorming and multivoting with a team
13) Upon review of the customer comment cards dropped in the box in his convenience store, Bob sees that 61% of the customers filling out a card have expressed dissatisfaction with waiting times. Bob decides to add an additional cashier during the day. Bob is using the ______ thinking style in order to make this decision.
A. deductive logical
D. inductive logical
14) In nearly all decision-making models, which of the following is an essential step in the decision-making process?
A. Identify alternatives
B. Analyzing negative feedback
C. Appraising the problem
D. Making trade-offs
15) You have been assigned to a project team to develop a marketing plan a new product being launched by your company. Which of the following should the project team do first?
A. Identify the obstacles presented by competitors.
B. Define the project team’s goal.
C. Consult with the rest of the employees involved in the new product development.
D. Deliberate about the project team’s commitment.
16) Jan has been selected to implement her company’s decision to expand her company’s manufacturing operation into a new location. Six months into this project, the building has been completed, and machinery installed. However, Jan has been unable to secure enough applicants with the technical skills needed to operate this computerized facility. Jan’s implementation plan was most deficient in its consideration of
B. technological constraints
C. organizational mission
17) In response to declining profits, a company decides that it needs to become world class, but is having difficulty developing an implementation plan around the goal of “becoming world class.” Rather than implement this decision, the company would be well advised to return to the ______ step of decision making.
A. develop criteria, goals, and objectives
B. frame alternatives
C. determine measurements
D. evaluate the decision
18) Which factor would be most critical in decision implementation?
A. Contingency plan
C. Ethical considerations
D. Resources to implement decision
19) Freda is analyzing the prospects for a new gambling casino that her company is considering. In the course of her analysis, Freda has identified potential stakeholder resistance to this venture, in that she has discovered that the area is very densely populated with houses of worship. She has also discovered a potential source of support for this venture, in that the local government has established tax credits for new businesses in an effort to stimulate employment. Freda is, in all likelihood, developing a
A. resource allocation survey
B. Force Field Analysis
C. financial proforma income statement
D. ROI analysis
20) When implementing a decision, a company must ensure that its actions remain consistent with its
A. current resource allocations
B. organizational mission
C. past practices and procedures
D. employee’s preferences
21) Which decision making tool would be used in identifying possible causes for a problem?
C. Fishbone diagram
22) Markus worked last summer as a receptionist in a lawyer’s office. During a discussion with you, he commented that he was asked to tell callers that the lawyer was in court when in fact the lawyer was playing golf! He eventually quit the job because he believes that under no circumstance is it permissible to tell a lie. Markus appears to be following the ethical system referred to as a
A. rule or deontological ethics
B. Practical deliberation
C. Virtue ethics
23) A company applying a ______ view of ethics would probably find fewer impediments to decisions involving cross cultural factors than one applying a ______ view.
A. universalist, relativist
B. relativist, universalist
C. deontological, rule based
D. virtue, utilitarian
24) In a global economy, which of the following must a manager consider in ensuring the ethicality of his or her decision?
A. Cross-cultural issues
B. Conflicting legal issues
C. Justification for outsourcing
25) A tool that is helpful in monitoring, evaluating, and changing a decision as needed during implementation is the
A. stakeholder summary analysis
B. Plan, do, check, act (PDCA) cycle
C. contingency plan effectiveness audit
D. financial effectiveness audit
26) A measurement that identifies the degree to which goals and objectives are attained is a measure of:
A. organizational effectiveness
B. organizational precision
C. organizational efficiency
D. organizational stability
27) In order to apply continuous improvement in decision making, a company should take the time to record not only the results of its decisions, but also the
A. impact to external stakeholders
B. financial results
C. customer satisfaction data
D. process through which the decision was made
28) A company has decided to fund a summer basketball league for young people in the community. The decision will result in increased expenditures with no increase in revenues or profits. In evaluating this decision outcome, the officers of the company must weigh both its ______ responsibility and its ______ responsibility, two components of corporate social responsibility.
A. economic, legal
B. economic, philanthropic
C. economic, fiduciary
D. legal, ethical
29) As noted in our texts, a key measurement of our decisions is: “Are they ethical?” In order to achieve a superior level of ethical behavior in its decision making processes, leaders should instill a(n) ______ in those charged with making decisions.
A. compliance based approach to ethical considerations
B. integrity based approach to ethical considerations
C. legal approach to ethical considerations
D. utilitarian approach to ethical considerations
30) When evaluating the decision processes in an organization, leaders should consider doing which of the following?
A. Make a list of those affected by the decision, and determine if those interests are represented in the process under consideration.
B. Make sure to focus on results of the decision rather than the process.
C. Ensure that the process is consistent for all significant decisions.
D. Ensure that all of a company’s stakeholders provide input all of a company’s decisions.